RIP Routing broadcasts

To share the paths' information, the RIP protocol uses broadcast messages. RIP protocol periodically reads the routing table and shares it with neighbors through a broadcast message. Upon receiving a broadcast message from a neighbor, the RIP protocol reads the broadcast message and updates the routing table accordingly.

For example, if the broadcast message contains information about a new path, the RIP protocol adds that path in the routing table or if the broadcast message contains information that an existing path has gone down, the RIP protocol removes that path from the routing table or marks that path unusable in the routing table.

When a router running RIP protocol broadcasts the routing table, it not only broadcasts the information about the locally connected networks but also broadcasts the information about the networks that it has learned from its neighbors through the previously received broadcasts.

This update sequence eventually allows all routers to learn all paths. Let’s understand this process through an example. Suppose, in a network, four routers: A, B, C, and D are connected in a sequence. All four routers are using the RIP routing protocol. Networks 10.0.0.0/8, 20.0.0.0/8, 30.0.0.0/8, and 40.0.0.0/8 are locally connected to the routers A, B, C, and D respectively.

The routing update sequence goes in the following way.

Router A broadcasts information of the network 10.0.0.0/8 to Router B.

Router B broadcasts information of the network 10.0.0.0/8 to Router A and C.

Router C broadcasts information of the network 30.0.0.0/8 to Router B and D.

Router D broadcasts information of the network 40.0.0.0/8 to Router C.

All routers after receiving broadcast update their routing tables, respectively.

Router A adds an entry in the routing table that indicates the network 20.0.0.0/8 is reachable through Router B.

Router B adds an entry in the routing table that indicates the networks 10.0.0.0/8 and 30.0.0.0/8 are reachable through Router A and C, respectively.

Router C adds an entry in the routing table that indicates the networks 40.0.0.0/8 and 20.0.0.0/8 are reachable through Router B and D, respectively.

Router D adds an entry in the routing table that indicates the network 30.0.0.0/8 is reachable through Router C.

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